Dietary intake and anthropometric indices in Mexican medical students, stratified by family history of Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract Introduction Our aim was to evaluate the dietary intake and anthropometric indices in medical students with positive family history of type 2 diabetes (FH-T2D)(+) and without FH-T2D(-). Material and Methods 144 students were analyzed in this cross-sectional, observational study, conducted during the 2017-2018 school year using interviews and 7-day food diary. The participants were characterized anthropometrically. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), corrected mid-arm muscle area (MAMA), fat arm index (FAI), and tricipital skinfold (TSF) were calculated. Results We found that 79.2% (95%CI:72.5-85.8) had FH-T2D. BMI was significantly higher in the participants with FH-T2D than without (23.7±3.8 vs. 25.0±3.7, respectively; p<0.05). No significant differences were determined in the indices based on central fat distribution (WHtR and WHR), peripheral distribution (FAI and TSF), or muscle mass (MAMA), when stratified by FH-T2D. Regarding dietary intake, when comparing participants with and without FH-T2D, respectively, we observed low/none legume consumption [30% (95%CI:21.4-38.2) vs. 23% (95%CI:8.2-38.5)], diets high in proteins [38.6% (95%CI:29.7-47.5) vs. 46.7% (95%CI:28.8-64.5)], low in carbohydrates [84.2% (95%CI:77.5-90.9) vs. 83.3% (95%CI:70.0-96.7)], and insufficient energy intake [64% (95%CI:55.2-72.8) vs. 56.7% (95%CI:38.9-74.4)], where the alterations in the dietary pattern were more detrimental for the FH-T2D(+) group. Lastly, the participants with FH-T2D consumed mainly late in the day [60% (95%CI:50.6-68.6) vs. 54% (95%CI:35.5-71.2)]. Conclusions Even though there were minimal significant differences with the consumption by food categories, those students with FH-T2D presented with a poor, little varied and unbalanced dietary pattern with energy consumption mainly at night. These factors, if prolonged, could increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
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Academia Española de Nutrición y Dietética
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