Organización para Estudios Tropicales, (OET), Costa Rica
Bibliografía Nacional en Biología Tropical, (BINABITROP)

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Signatura:Non available.
Autor: Zompro, O.
Dirección: Max-Planck-Institut für Limnologie, AG Tropenoekologie, August Thienemann Strasse 2, 24306, Ploen, DE E-mail: o.zompro@sungaya.de.
Título: Revision of the genera of the Areolatae, including the status of Timema and Agathemera (Insecta: Phasmatodea). Revisión de los géneros de Areolatae, incluyendo la situación de Timema y Agathemera (Insecta: Phasmatodea).
P.imprenta: v. 37, p. 1-327. Año 2004.
Serie: Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg.
Descriptores: ANIMALS; INVERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; INSECTS.
ORTHOPTERA; EMBIOPTERA; PLECOPTERA; PHASMIDA; PHASMATODEA; ARCHIPSEUDOPHASMATIDAE; ANTHERICONIA ANKETESCHKE; XYLOSPINODES JENSJOHANNSENI; SUCINOPHASMATINAE; SUCINOPHASMA; COLORATOBISTUS DILAWITIMPAKPAK; TRACHYARETAON GATLA; GRYLLOCLONIA GRYLLOIDES; MINTERONEMIA FILIFORMIA; MINTERONEMIA LONGITARSA; SPLENDIDONEMIA SPLENDIDA; PLANISPECTRUM HONGKONGENSE; PLANISPECTRUM JAVANENSE; PSEUDODATAMES BICORNUTUS; PSEUDOPERLA SLEIPNIR; SUCINOPHASMA BLATTODEOPHILA; TIMEMATODEA; ABROSOMA DISCOLOR; COLORATOBISTUS DISCOLOR; ABROSOMA VILLOSUM; COLORATOBISTUS VILLOSUM; ACANTHOCLONIA; PAROBRIMUS; ACANTHOCLONIA DICRANUM; DICRANOCLONIA; ACANTHOCLONIA MINIMA; GRYLLOCLONIA MINIMA; ACANTHOCLONIA PAPALLACTA; GRYLLOCLONIA PAPALLACTA; ACANTHOCLONIA PUNANA; GRYLLOCLONIA PUNANA; ACANTHOMECIES; PSEUDOPERLA SLEIPNIR; SUCINOPHASMA BLATTODEOPHILA; PTERANISOMORPHA NIGROLINEATA; RETICULONIGRUM ANDREASZOMPROI; XYLOBISTUS BRAGGI; BRUNEI; AGROSTIA BIPUNCTATA; ANISACANTHA ALBOGENICULATA; XERANTHERIX; ANISACANTHIDAE; AREOLATAE; ANISOMORPHA BORELLII; URUCUMANIA; ANISOMORPHA URUCUMANA; STRATOCLEINAE; ANTHERICONIA ANKETESCHKE; ANTHERICONIA ANKETESCHKE; ANTONGILIA CHOPARDI; ANTSEUDOPERLA SLEIPNIR; SUCINOPHASMA BLATTODEOPHILA; PTERANISOMORPHA NIGROLINEATA; RETICULONIGRUM ANDREASZOMPROI; XYLOBISTUS BRAGGI; PHYLOGENY; CHECKLISTS; PHYLOGENY; EVOLUTION; GENERIC RELATIONSHIPS; EGG MORPHOLOGY SIGNIFICANCE; SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATIONS; ZOOGEOGRAPHY; DISCUSSION; GEOLOGICAL AGES; FOSSIL RECORDS; TAXONOMY; KEY; CENOZOIC; TERTIARY; PALAEOGENE; NEW SPECIES; EOCENE.
COSTA RICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; AFRICA; HONG KONG; MADAGASCAR; INDONESIA; EURASIA; PHILIPPINES; ASIA; CHINA; ECUADOR; CHILE; PARAGUAY; BRAZIL; SOUTH AMERICA.
Resumen: The phylogenetic relations between the genera of the Phasmatodea, suborder Areolatae, are discussed. In this study, priority for decisions on phylogenetic relationships is given to egg morphology. Timema Scudder, 1895 is widely accepted as representing the sister group to the remaining phasmids and is included in Phasmatodea in the rank of the suborder Timematodea. An examination of the eggs of Timematodea and Embioptera species indicates an intermediate position between Embioptera and Phasmatodea,so that it is accepted here of being of the same rank as Phasmatodea. The Embioptera has mostly been regarded as an outgroup, but a sister-group relationship to Plecoptera + (Timematodea + Embioptera) is also considered. Phasmatomorpha n. tax. is introduced, to comprise Phasmatodea and (Plecoptera + (Timematodea + Embioptera)). The order Phasmatodea consists of Verophasmatodea n. subord. (Areolatae and Anareolatae) and Agathemerodea n. stat., with the single genus Agathemera Stal, 1875; t his occupies aspecial position within Phasmatodea because of the muscular system of the pregenital abdominal segments. The extinct [dagger]Archipseudophasmatidae were true Verophasmatodea. Within the Verophasmatodea, the Phyllioidea makes up the sister group to the other superfamilies included. The superfamily Aschiphasmatoidea, containing Aschiphasmatidae, Prisopodidae n. stat. and Damasippoididae n. fam., is the sister group to Pseudophasmatoidea (Pseudophasmatidae and Heteronemiidae) and Bacilloidea (Heteropterygidae, Anisacanthidae n. fam. and Bacillidae). The present arrangement is strongly supported by the geographical distribution: Pseudophasmatoidea are restricted to the New World, Phyllioidea to tropical Asia, the Northern Australis and some Oceanian islands, and Bacilloidea to Africa and the Mediterranean region (Bacillidae), Madagascar (Anisacanthidae) and tropical Asia (Heteropterygidae). Only the comparatively primitive Aschiphasmatoidea are distributed over all tropical areas of the world, Prisopodidae occur in Central and South America, Damasippoididae in Madagascar and Aschiphasmatidae in tropical Asia. The monophyly of Anareolatae repeatedly questioned by various authors is not supported in the present study. Several evolutionary trends are present in the families of Phasmatodea: the reduction of the area apicalis, the modification of the profemora from straight to basally curved and compressed, an increasingly long mesonotum, and wing reduction. Keys to adults and eggs of all genera of Areolataeare included, as is a list of all genera of the Phasmatodea, including their type species. Fourteen new genera are established, and thirteen species are described for the first time
Compiled by: Organization for Tropical Studies


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